Policy Memos | Аналитические записки

Policy Memo # 540
Erica Marat 14 Sep 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) As a global leader in developing and using surveillance technologies, China is exporting its high-tech brand of authoritarianism to its neighbors in Eurasia. Chinese firms have been promoting their artificial intelligence (AI) and surveillance technologies and projects globally, and attracting customers in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan. All of the systems are part of the “...
Policy Memo # 539
Marlene Laruelle 05 Sep 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Over the past decade, and even more overtly since the annexation of Crimea, there has been a growing tendency to describe Russia—or at least the Putin regime—as “fascist.” On the political scene, this assessment has been articulated by everyone from Western policy leaders like former U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton and former UK Foreign Secretary Boris Johnson to Russian opponents of Vladimir Putin such as Garry Kasparov...
Policy Memo # 538
Natalie Koch, Veli-Pekka Tynkkynen 29 Aug 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Energy and natural resource use has always been a key issue of geopolitics, but as more countries adopt “post-oil” transition policies, environmental sustainability has itself become an important geopolitical issue that is increasingly defining political relations among and within states. Leaders in both Kazakhstan and Russia—two of Eurasia’s leading hydrocarbon producers—have been investing in new alternative energy...
Policy Memo # 537
Kirill Rogov 20 Aug 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Vladimir Putin’s new presidential term is shaping up to be the most complicated of his political career. According to the Russian Constitution, he is not allowed to become president again in 2024. Finding a solution for this problem is a major issue for the Kremlin. Either there will be a transition of power or Putin will prolong his rule by making constitutional changes. The uncertainty and vulnerability of this situation is...
Policy Memo # 536
Polina Sinovets 10 Aug 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) This has been an eventful year so far for U.S.-Russian relations in the field of nuclear weapons. The U.S. Nuclear Posture Review (NPR) was released in February 2018 and it raised a number of potential future problems for strategic stability. The speech by President Vladimir Putin to the Russian Federal Assembly in March showed that Russia is currently at a high point in strategic arms development. Clashes over arms control treaties,...
Policy Memo # 535
Alexander Sukharenko 13 Jul 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Russian organized crime has high levels of sophistication and well-developed networks of corruption. It influences a considerable portion of the economy and spills across national borders. In this regard, Russia’s National Security Strategy, approved by the president in December 2015, included organized crime on its list of major threats to public safety. Despite the introduction of an electoral filter to remove previously...
Policy Memo # 534
Sebastien Peyrouse 09 Jul 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Uzbekistan remains one of the Muslim states in the former Soviet space most averse to the development of Islamic education. For over twenty years, in the name of separation of religion and state, and in an effort to prevent so-called threats from foreign Islamist elements, late President Islam Karimov limited the teaching of Islam to a few madrasas and higher Islamic institutions attended by a small number of cautiously selected...
Policy Memo # 533
Stanislav Tkachenko 14 Jun 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) In 2017, the term “Russian hackers” became a brand similar to that of Stolichnaya, Aeroflot, and Lada. Russia’s information and communication technologies (ICT) sector became described as having incredible capabilities, to the extent that it can manipulate the political destinies of other states including the United States. This has not been exactly helpful for Russia’s ICT enterprises, the majority of which have nothing to do...
Policy Memo # 532
Kimitaka Matsuzato 04 Jun 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) In the late spring of 2014, Donetsk People’s Republic (DPR) militants seized Mariupol and Kramatorsk, but they were soon recaptured by the Ukrainian army. Both cities are close to the DPR military border and are typical company towns containing several dominate enterprises that provide significant portions of local employment. City politics in this part of Ukraine has traditionally been controlled by the preferences and resources of...
Policy Memo # 531
Edward Schatz 01 Jun 2018
(PONARS Policy Memo) Much has changed in Uzbekistan since December 2016, when Shavkat Mirziyoyev was elected president following the death of long-time dictator Islam Karimov. Prisoners have been released en masse; entrenched national elites have been shaken from their complacency; corrupt officials have been relieved of their duties, with some now facing prosecution; the role of the security services in everyday life has been diminished; prominent...

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